What Is Operating system?
This is a question that makes any new computer user ask him/herself! If you currently don’t know what an Operating system is and how it works, then you have to proceed reading this article as I have explained deeply enough to make it clear and comprehensive to you. An Operating System is a software program that controls all the functionalities of both Computer Hardware and Software Programs (Application Programs) in the computer system. It manages all programs’ processes, computer memory and peripheral devices’ performance. Sometimes abbreviated as OS, an Operating system software enables computer components to communicate to each other, making it easy for a computer user to accomplish different computing tasks in an easy and intuitive way. Basically, it’s hard to figure out which color an operating system has as it runs in background, managing your hardware devices as well as software, but you can determine your Operating system is working by investigating your PC’s capabilities in accomplishing different tasks on a variety range of time. Development in software industry has made it easy for any person to use and drive a computer system for performing different tasks by just using a small hardware device called a mouse, an opportunity that didn’t happen in the earliest computing life. This is due to a presence of an important feature in all modern Operating Systems, called GUI. GUI is an acronym for Graphical User Interface. It allows computer users to use a mouse for clicking Menu items, graphical iconsand text links on the screen for sending commands to the computer system. In the early times learning and becoming a professional computer user, could take a long period of time as all computer systems relied solely on the feature commonly known as Command Line Interface (CLI), which means every computing operation required sending commands by clicking on the keyboard keys. The common Operating Systems that offer a GUI include: Microsoft Operating Systems, Mac OS X, LINUX and UNIX. They are all developed and distributed by different companies as explained below: 1. Microsoft Windows OSMicrosoft Windows OS or just Windows Operating systems as sometimes they are often called, are the Operating systems created and supplied/distributed by a software company popularly known as Microsoft Corporation. There are different versions of Windows OS, such as Windows ME, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, etc. The earliest versions currently running on most PCs are Windows Vista, Windows 7 and Windows 8. The fact profile is that Windows Operating Systems come pre-loaded in most PCs. 2. Mac OS XPronounced as Mac O-S ten, Mac Os is another popular operating system in the computing World. Produced and distributed by Apple Inc.,this OS offers a GUI, and it comes pre-loaded in all Apple PCs (Macintosh Computers). 3. LINUXLinux is another operating system developed for working in personal computers. This operating system is mostly used in servers than in PCs for that it make it easy for performing modifications to the systems than other operating systems can do. Operating Systems for Mobile DevicesA mobile operating system, or simply mobile OS as you can call it, is a kind of operating system that operates and runs a smartphone, tablet, PDA, and other mobile devices. The most common Mobile Operating systems include:Android. This is a mobile operating system from Google Inc.iOS. Mobile Operating System from Apple Inc.Windows Phone This is a mobile OS developed by Microsoft Corporation.Symbian. A mobile OS developed by Nokia.
Which operating systems?
The operating systems have undergone a tremendous development since 1981. It all started with DOS, which was a 16 bit modification of a simple 8 bit operating system called CP/M. DOS was further developed in the 1980s. Since around 1990 Windows came into the scene. Windows started as a GUI ( Graphic User Interface ) for DOS. The PC booted with DOS as operating system. Then you could choose, if you wanted mouse and graphics on the screen with Windows . Windows was a supplement to DOS. The Graphic User Interface (GUI) allows you to work with a mouse instead of writing long command lines like copy c:\texts\*.* d:\textbak\ *.* /s/v/, which is the standard in text based operating systems (like DOS). DOS was designed for 16 bit computers, which the first PCs were. With Intel’s 80386 the 32 bit technology was knocking at the door. Modern PCs are designed for straight 32 bit program execution. So we have seen a gradual trend in the PC operating systems from 16 bit towards 32 bit and this affects hardware design.
OS/2 was a completely new-designed OS build on a 32 bit kernel (as UNIX and LINUX). It was originally designed by IBM and Microsoft together, but Microsoft abandoned the project in favour of their own Windows . In the early 1990s many people (including I) were very fond of OS/2. But it lost momentum as Windows 95 appeared. Windows 95 was a radical development of Windows 3.11. Windows 95 was build on DOS, but the 32 bit components made up a big part of the OS. Together with Windows 95 came new 32 bit appliacations, which could not be executed within DOS. Windows 98 and Me are further enhanced versions of Windows 95. Windows 95 and Windows 98/Me are mostly 32 bit OS’s, but with some 16 bit remnants. Windows NT is a pure 32 bit OS from Microsoft. It was developed in a parallel run with OS/2. Windows 2000 and XP are more popular versions of Windows NT. They hold the same user interface as Windows 98 end ME. They include all the DirectX technologies of Windows 98/Me which enables game and other multimedia applications to run